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The fraction of the radiation transmitted through the dead skin layer is estimated to be 0.11.Small amounts of carbon-14 are not easily detected by typical Geiger–Müller (G-M) detectors; it is estimated that G-M detectors will not normally detect contamination of less than about 100,000 disintegrations per minute (0.05 µCi).Diamond is the hardest substance known, so its interior should be very resistant to contamination.Diamond requires very high pressure to form—pressure found naturally on earth only deep below the surface.Note that, contrary to a popular misconception, carbon dating is not used to date rocks at millions of years old.Before we get into the details of how radiometric dating methods are used, we need to review some preliminary concepts from chemistry.C14 has a half life of 5730 years and is only good to date objects to 50,000 years or so.Although I can find any number of references to this seemingly vital finding on the creationist sites, I can find almost no attempt to refute or explain this anomaly on serious science sites. There seem to be some unsubstantiated references to the possibility of neutrons generated by uranium decay resulting in an anomalously high presence of C14.

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With our focus on one particular form of radiometric dating—carbon dating—we will see that carbon dating strongly supports a young earth.) is only 5,730 years—that is, every 5,730 years, half of it decays away.After two half lives, a quarter is left; after three half lives, only an eighth; after 10 half lives, less than a thousandth is left.Recall that atoms are the basic building blocks of matter.Atoms are made up of much smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons.This resemblance is used in chemical and biological research, in a technique called carbon labeling: carbon-14 atoms can be used to replace nonradioactive carbon, in order to trace chemical and biochemical reactions involving carbon atoms from any given organic compound.These are relatively low energies; the maximum distance traveled is estimated to be 22 cm in air and 0.27 mm in body tissue.However, open-air nuclear testing between 1955–1980 contributed to this pool.The different isotopes of carbon do not differ appreciably in their chemical properties.Scientists use a technique called radiometric dating to estimate the ages of rocks, fossils, and the earth.Many people have been led to believe that radiometric dating methods have proved the earth to be billions of years old.

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