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Geological, tectonic, mineralogical investigations and age analysis were carried out to identify the liquefied material.Paleoliquefaction characterized by sand and mud dykes is observed in three different locations.

Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits.This paper aims to provide an overview concerning the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating method and its applications for geomorphological research in France.An outline of the general physical principles of luminescence dating is given.Several studies have used luminescence dating to investigate sand mobilization activity in extreme western areas and the southern margin of the Thar Desert, India.However, room exists for a chronology of sand profiles for the northern margins of the Thar Desert.The sediments of the lower part of the profile accumulated during the end of the Late Pleniglacial and through the Late-Glacial, when climatic variations caused the alternation of sand and soil horizons in the region.The sand and soil layers of the upper part of the sediment succession were deposited and formed during the Subatlantic phase of the Holocene, when sand mobility was probably mainly triggered by human activities.For this study, in order to investigate the relationship of sand and mud dykes with liquefaction, the present geologic and hydrogeologic environment, evolution of the host sediments and the paleoenvironment corresponding to duration of liquefaction were investigated.Field work was carried out and laboratory experiments were performed on the samples taken from liquefied soils and clayey lacustrine sediments cut by sand and mud dykes.The Ghaggar River flood plain at Rajasthan, northwestern India, in the northern margin of the Thar Desert, is bordered by sand dunes.Elucidation of the environmental changes of the Ghaggar Basin requires knowledge of many aspects of sand dune formation.


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